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Analysis of Wuthering Height Novel


Wuthering Height is the novel written by Emily Bronte in between October 1845 till June 1846. It published first in 1847 under the pen name “Ellis Bell”. Emily died the following year, aged 30. Wuthering Height was all sorts of confusion about the author, because Brontë published the book under the pseudonym Ellis Bell when it was published in 1847 . After she died, Charlotted edited the manuscript foe Wuthering Heights and arranged for the edited version to be published to be second edition in 1850. The book had been a popular, superior and by the end of the century it was regarded as one of the greatest novel ever written. The genre of the book is Gothic Literature. Wuthering height now widely regarded as the most popular classical of English Literature, contempory reviews for the novel were deeply polarized, it was considered controversial cause depiction of mental and physical cruelty was unusally and it challenged strict Victorian ideals of the day. The love story between Heathcliff and Catherine became a classic of literature also. It was voted as Britain’s favorite love story in a poll published in the British newspaper, The Guardian, in August 2007. It has been a favourite novel for adaptations to TV, radio and film. The book has inspired adaptations including film, radio, a musical and television dramatisations. The book adapted to the film in some generations and most famous in 1939. It won the 1939 New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Film.

  1. Synopsis of Wuthering Heights

Its about the passionate love story between the wild and uncouth Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw. A man named Mr. Lockwood wants to live with Heathcliff. He becomes sick during his visit at the Thrushcross Grange, and has to stay at the Grange to get better. Nelly begins to tell him the story of Heathcliff, and his family. Heathcliff was an orphan that came to Wuthering Heights, and fell in love with Catherine Earnshaw. As Catherine grew though, she became more proper, and Heathcliff seemed more undignified. One night, Heathcliff ran away, and didn't come back for awhile. In that time period, Catherine married Edgar Linton. Then Heathcliff returned, and Catherine fell back in love with him. This ruined her marriage with Edgar. They began fighting more, and she became sick from the heartbreak of not being with Heathcliff, and having a bad marriage with Edgar. Heathcliff ran away with Edgar's sisiter, Isabella, and got married. Then Heathcliff visited Catherine, and told her he couldn't live without her, and she would haunt him his whole life. She became sicker, and gave birth to young Catherine 2 months early, and died after she was born. Isabella ran away, and gave birth to Linton Heathcliff. Edgar took care of Cathy. He didn't want her to know about Wuthering Heights or Heathcliff. She visits Wuthering Heights anyways, and meets Linton. Heathcliff wants Linton to marry Cathy, and holds her and Nelly captive untill they are married. Linton dies not that long after getting married, but Heathcliff won't let Cathy leave Wuthering Heights. He makes her take care of everything by herself. Lockwood has left Wuthering Heights by this point, but returns and visits Nelly. She tells him that Heathcliff began acting strange, and died. Cathy has married Hareton, and they move to Thrushcross Grange.

Wuthering Heights has two main narrators: Lockwood and Ellen "Nelly" Dean. The primary narrator is Lockwood, who begins and ends the narrative and is recording the story that he hears from Nelly. Nelly is Lockwood's inside source of information, though, as he can only directly report what he witnesses in the present time—beginning in 1801, the year before Heathcliff dies. So, Nelly is telling Lockwood her version of the events, which then get filtered and recorded through his perspective. In cases where Nelly was not a witness to the events, she fills in the story with either someone else's eyewitness report to her or with quotes from a letter.

  1. Victorian Period

The Victorian period formally begins in 1837 and ends in 1901. The Victorian Age was a time of great economic, social and political change and developments in nearly every sphere from advances in medical scientific, and technological knowledge to changes in population growth. It’s the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.

The Victorian Era was the great age of the English novel – realistic thickly plotted, crowded with characters and long. Many Victorian writers dealt with the contrast between the prosperity of the middle and upper classes and also wretched condition of the poor such as: Charles Dickens with The Oliver Twist, William Makepeace Thackeray with Vanity Fair and Emily Bronte with Wuthering Heights. Gothic Literature is popular genre that was started in this period. However, the Gothic tropes used earlier in the eighteenth century in texts such as Ann Radcliffe's The Mysteries of Udolpho were transported and interwoven into many late-nineteenth century narratives. These tropes included psychological and physical terror; mystery and the supernatural; madness, doubling, and heredity curses. The Victorian Gothic moves away from the familiar themes of Gothic fiction - ruined castles, helpless heroines, and evil villains - to situate the tropes of the supernatural and the uncanny within a recognisable environment.

The novel Wuthering Heights comes as a link between the Romantic and the Victorian social and literary periods. Event though, Victorian society would not accept the violent characters and harsh realities of , but subsequent audiences are both more understanding and accepting of the using it as the element of human life.

In the story was wrote that arrival of Heatcliff in 1771 through to come of Lockwood in 1801 and his last visit in 1802, it show that how much time has passed and two period has passed in the story. 1771 is represente time of Romantic Era and 1801 to 1802 is reperesent time of Early Victorian Era.

In the story wrote that Heatcliff was like an orphan on the street of Liverpool that took home by Mr. Earnshaw. The orphans also can found in other Victorian Novel – Oliver Twist. An orphan could be representative of social economy situation in Victorian Period. When Brontë composed her book, in the 1840s, the English economy was severely depressed, and the conditions of the factory workers in industrial areas like Liverpool were so appalling that the upper and middle classes feared violent revolt. Thus, many of the more affluent members of society beheld these workers with a mixture of sympathy and fear. In literature, the smoky, threatening, miserable factory-towns were often represented in religious terms, and compared to hell. The poet William Blake, writing near the turn of the nineteenth century, speaks of England’s “dark Satanic Mills.” Heathcliff, of course, is frequently compared to a demon by the other characters in the book. Thrushcross Grange is also a symbol of economic interest, which relates to the industrialism of the Victorian era. Indeed, a different class will appear as an important subtext in Wuthering Height.

Wuthering Heights is in the same ethical and moral tradition as the other great Victorian novels. Its criticism of society is as fierce as Charlotte Bronte's or Dickens' of the same spirit interfuses the novels of Charlotte and Emily Bronte. Both of the novels show family life started a conflict and revenge; a deadly struggle for money and power. It described by Heatcliff when he left Wutthering Height and back again as the rich person.

Catherine represents wild nature, in both her high, lively spirits and her occasional cruelty, whereas Isabella, her sister in law, represents culture and civilization, both in her refinement and in her weakness. Catherine decided to marry with Edgar Linton despite her love to Heatcliff. It could be a form of the weakness of females in the era. It’s persistent of daring struggle for true love is a symbol of the awakening of women conciuosness in love and marriage Women unable to control their feelings well till resulting the illness and eventually died.

The first love triangle involves Catherine Earnshaw Linton, Edgar Linton, and Heathcliff and originates from Wuthering Heights, the house. The values of the Romantic period are evident not only in each of these individuals and the place itself, but also in the relationships between the individuals. Driving the plot of Wuthering Heights are two love triangles: the first is between Catherine Earnshaw Linton, Heathcliff, and Edgar Linton; the second is between Catherine Linton Heathcliff, Linton Heathcliff, and Hareton Earnshaw. The first of these love triangles exemplifies the values of the Romantic period, while the second represents those of the Victorian era.

Gothic atmosphere also appeared in this novel, it also described the identity as Victorian Novels. The Gothic to the desolate Yorkshire Moors and features supernatural occurances and a Byronic hero in the character of the villainous Heathcliff. The story is set in an extreme landscape on the wild moors, weather-beaten by icy winds, storms and rain. Wuthering Heights has many Gothic characteristics. It is dark, lit with candles, and has hidden rooms, passages, oak paneled beds, stairwells and banisters. The ghost of Catherine Linton appears in the opening chapters and we are witness to dreams, visions and supernatural incidents. The story of the Earnshaws and Lintons spans three generations and is full of torture, tyranny and intolerable cruelty. It hinges on the soul consuming and obsessive love between Catherine Earnshaw/Linton and Heathcliff. Their passionate love leads them to various forms of physical and mental madness that transcends death. There is even a hint of necrophilia when Heathcliff opens Catherine’s coffin years later.

The novel also show about Class in Victorian Era. The way that Hindley abuse the young Heathcliff, terminating his education and forcing him to work in the fields because Hindley didn’t like Heatcliff in the first his come in Wuthering Height. He thought that an orphans like him not proper to life with Earnshaw’s family. It also was described by the page that Catherine married with Edgar Linton that in upper social class than Heatcliff, she told with Nely that He is civilized and well mannered.

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  1. Author Background

Wuthering is the first novel by Emily Bronte that published by Charlotter, her brother. Wuthering Height published with her “pen name” is Ellis Bell. She was the sister of Charlotte and Anne Bronte that also famous authors in Victorian Period. They called Bronte Sister. She born on July 30, 1818 in Thornton, Yokshire, England.

Her father was author also, He had published several literary works during his lifetime too. Her family was the perfect example of a Victorian Ideal family. Her grandfather and father were ideal citizens. Her parents were the Victorian Idea of how a husband and wife should be.

Emily’s family moved to Haworth in 1821 then a few months later, her mother died of cancer. Both of Emily’s sister, Elizabet and Maria died cause tuberculosis in 1825. In fact, Emily died also cause tuberculosis on December 1848. She and her sisters were died in young age. The story of Chaterine died cause her depression of her love for Heatcliffand the Weakness Hilton could describe how health situation in place of Bronte life. Haworth is unhealthy, poor town, and the children will spent much of their time on the nearby moors to creating a stories and poems about imaginary lands that be better than their place at the time.

Emily was a shy and unsocial woman but she enjoyed her quiet life well. As her literary works suggest that she had a high intelligence. She wrote poems and poetry based on her imagination like her brother, Branwell. In 1831, she create the imaginary kingdom of Gondal with her sister Anne.

Wuthering Heights would have been especially symbolic for Brontë as she spent her childhood in the late Romantic period and her adolescence and adulthood in the Victorian period. Beginning with Catherine Earnshaw, loved by both Edgar Linton and Heathcliff, producing the first love triangle symbolizing the Romantic era and ending with Catherine Linton, involved with both Linton Heathcliff and Hareton Earnshaw, producing the second love triangle which symbolizes the Victorian era, Emily Brontë has woven a passionate and intricate story, fusing two periods of her life together.

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