The Speech Act Classification in Leap Year Movies
January 23th 2017 A. Introduction Every day and every time people need communication to each other. Communication can be generally forms conversations, utterances, and an actions. We do not only show produce utterances containing grammatical structure and words, we also perform actions via utterances. We have to interpreted the meaning or actions what the speaker said. Beside that in movies, we also can found actions via utterances containing conversation or action from the actors or actress. This study will tried explain the speech act classification in leap year movies. Its can be identification the types speech act classification and functions of the utterances performed in leap year movies. An actions performed via utterances are generally called speech act (Yule, 1996). We use the term of speech act to describe actions such as “requesting”, “commanding”, “questioning”, or “informing”.(Yule, 2010). Yule stated that about the speech act classification system lists five types of general functions such as: declarations, representatives, expressives, directives, and commissives. Declarations are a speech act that brings about a change by being uttered. Representatives are a speech act in which the speaker states what is believed or known. Expressive is a speech act in which the speaker expresses feelings or attitudes. Directives are a speech act used to get someone else to do something. And the last, commissive is speech act in which the speaker commits him or herself to some future action. This study choose leap year movies as the data, because its has a simple conflict and the movie tells about daily activity and giving morals for the audiences. Beside that the movies shows mythos a country the mythos about the leap year in Ireland where its can be learn the audiences how is important the tradition to saving. Therefore, this study tried to analyze the relationship between leap year movies and speech act classification. This research focus on speech act classification in leap year movies. The data collected by identifying types speech act classification in the movie and the functions of actions or utterances that used by characters in the movies. B. Discussion. The data was collected by uses descriptive method that was collect directly from the movies. The data an amount of 50 utterances. From 50 utterances analyzed one by one. Then, we identifying the utterances belonging to speech act classification declaratives, representatives, expressives, directives, or commissives. The data will be showed by table.
No The samples of utterances Types of speech act classification Meaning 1. Morning gentleman. Feet. Directive Command 2. So happy you re here. Expressive Sorrow 3. This is the third open house and not one bite. Representative Report information 4. Well… don’t worry. Expressive To calm someone 5. I have everything under control. Representative Giving information 6. Anna, you are realtor? I’m stager. I stage apartments for realtor. I transform ordinary spaces in to something special. Representative Report information 7. Most people don’t know what it is they want until I show it to them and show many place need my help. Representative To Believe 8. Its just a very fine line between elegant and dowdy. Expressive Calm someone. 9. Ow! Expressive Pain 10. You did that on purpose. Knock it off! Directive Command 11. Don’t come up very often. Directive Warning 12. And thankfully, i have found somebody who shares that dream. Expressive Thank 13. Wow ! Expressive Wonderfulness 14. I’m fine, just you don’t be late. Directive Suggestion 15. You know I don’t like suprised. you’ll like this one. Directive Suggestion 16. I wanted to tell you something. Directive Telling 17. You gonna have a better engagement ring than me, you big jerk! Directive Giving suggestion 18. Oh my God. Did you know ? Expressive Suprising 19. Ready? Will you marry me? Commissive Promise 20. Try it again. Directive Command 21. Can I marry you ? no, thank you. Directive Question 22. Garcon! Champagne ! lets have a couple of beers, banana. Directive Request 23. You might have had to follow him to Ireland this weekend. Directive Command 24. Its a family myth it is the honest to God truth. Representative Believe 25. February 29th , Dublin, Ireland, she hits him with it. Boom! Representative Believe 26. Ring on finger, signed, sealed, delivered. Directive Telling information 27. I’m just happy that we want the same things. Expressive Joy 28. Send me a photo! I’ll have a look. Okay? All right. Sorry. Directive Command 29. You might have had to follow him to Ireland this weekend and pull a grandma Jane, it is leap year you know. Directive Suggestion 30. Leap year proposal are an old folklore tradition that dates back to the 5th century. Representative Believe 31. Are you know? Congratulations! Expressive To give congratulate someone 32. Look, I’m going to Dublin to propose to my boyfriend on the 29th, leap year. Commissive Threat 33. Its an old Irish tradition, and I need to buy dress and find a ring and book a restaurant. Directive Telling 34. Hi, I’d like a ticket to Cork, please! Ferry’s canceled. Directive Request 35. Hello. Are you open? Australian, South African. Actually, she’s American. Anna, from Boston. Declarative Introduction 36. Is there a taxi service or something? Directive Asking 37. Dublin is a city of chancers and cheat and backstabbing snakes. Its where the worst of humanity collects to poison this fair country. Directive Telling 38. Jesus ! I’d sell me wife for € 500! Commissive Swear 39. Trust me, you’d have few takers. Directive Command 40. Its backluck to start a journey on Friday Saturday. Its badluck to start a journey on Saturday. Representative Believe 41. You fried my Blackberry. You fried the whole village ! Idiot ! Commissive Swear 42. Sorry Declan, you’ve had plenty of time to pay your debt. Expressive Apologies 43. Give me a month. A month? A week. A week? God ! Directive Challenge 44. Don’t listen to her. She knows not what she says. Directive Command 45. You cant go now, missus. Why not? A black cat just crossed your path. Representative Believe 46. No, its tradition. It’s a romantic tradition. Directive Suggestion 47. Let’s move. Let’s move along. Come, on cows. Directive Command 48. Call the garage, get a tow, hop in car, back on the road and well be in Dublin in no time. Fine go ahead ! Directive Command 49. Do you want to not make plans with me? I reject your proposal. I don’t want to not make plans with you. Commissive Refusal 50. So you will forgive me if I don’t listen. I’m sorry. Expressive Apologies While we collect the data there is few problems. The problems that we found when collect the data from the movies, we confuse to determine which to include which one the types speech act classification that available. Then, when we add the utterances or samples in table because in movies many utterances we have problems when choose the utterances. From the table we can distinguish between the types speech act classification and the meanings. Therefore, we tried to make conclude the result from the table to help the reader easy to understand the types speech act classification and understand the meaning in context. The result from the table we know that the dominant speech act classification that uses in leap year movies is directive speech act. 1. Declaratives speech act see in table number 35. 2. Representatives speech act see in table numbers 3, 5, 6, 7, 24, 25, 30, 40, 45. 3. Expressive speech act see in table numbers 2, 4, 8, 9, 12, 13, 18, 27, 31, 42, 50. 4. Directive speech act see in table numbers 1, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 28, 29, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48. 5. Commissive speech act see in table numbers 19, 32, 38, 41, 49.
C. Conclusion. In conclusion, we will conclude The result of the discussion before. The research choose leap year movies. We analyse the utterances in the movies. Then, we classify their types speech act classification and we determine the meaning. After all of data was collect, we found the result that the dominant the types speech act classification is directive speech act in leap year movies. The purpose of the research We can distinguish between the types speech act classifications in pragmatics. We can identify the types speech act and we can understand the meaning in context by seeing the utterances that its has been made in table. Then, we can get information more easier.
REFERENCES Yule, George. 2010. The study of language fourth edition. The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU,UK: Cambridge University Press. Yule, George. 1996. Pragmatics. Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP Oxford, New york: Oxford University Press. http://subscene.com