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Applying Conversational Quality Maxims On Rise Of The Guardians Movie. By : Fatimah Az-zahro (14321


Name : Fatimah Az-zahro

Nim :143211008

Class : English Letters

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the study

As a matter of fact, languages have appeared for the sake of communication. Speakers and listeners communicate with one another for the purpose of conveying what they want to say either implicitly or explicitly. While conversing, they try to cooperate with one another in order to understand and be understood and this is the core idea of pragmatics.

In the 1970s pragmatics became an integral part of linguistics though it was argued whether it should be regarded as a field of linguistics or philosophy since its first proponents were philosophers such as Austin, Grice and Searle rather than linguists (Collinge, 2001 in Alduais, 2012, p.377). However, in the 1980s, it started to appear in "textbooks on linguistics" (Thomas, 1995 in Alduais, 2012, p.377). The history of pragmatics can be described as a conjunction of different moves, coming from epistemology and semiotics (Morris 1938), philosophy of language (Austin 1962; Searle 1969), logic (Frege [1892]1952; Russell 1905), and linguistics (Horn 1972; Wilson 1975; Kempson 1975; Gazdar 1979). Basic pragmatics was initially linked to reference and presupposition (Frege 1892 and Russell 1905), semantic and pragmatic presuppositions (Wilson and Kempson; Stalnaker 1977), and illocutionary acts (Austin 1962 and Searle 1969), and it was only in the mid-70s that the concept of implicature was introduced in Grice’s article "Logic and Conversation" (1975).

Pragmatics is a branch of linguistics, which is the study of language. Pragmatics focuses on conversational implicature, which is a process in which the speaker implies and a listener infers. Simply put, pragmatics studies language that is not directly spoken. Instead, the speaker hints at or suggests a meaning, and the listener assumes the correct intention.

In a sense, pragmatics is seen as an understanding between people to obey certain rules of interaction. In everyday language, the meanings of words and phrases are constantly implied and not explicitly stated. In certain situations, words can have a certain meaning. You might think that words always have a specifically defined meaning, but that is not always the case. Pragmatics studies how words can be interpreted in different ways based on the situation.

According to George Yulee, pragmatics is the study of speaker meaning. This type of study necessarily involves the interpretation of what people mean in a particular context and how the context influences what is said. The advantage of studying language via pragmatics is that one can talk about people’s intended meanings, their assumptions, their purposes or goals, and the kind of action (for example, request) that they are performing when they speak.

The first example is that one of movie is when bunny give ask a question to Santa : what do you mean, Black Sand?. And then Santa give answer : and then, a shadow. In this context Bunny not directly believe with Santa. Because he not believe with the answer from Santa. And then Bunnny said again : hold on, hold on. I thought you said you saw Pitch. Then Santa : well, not exactly. And here we know if we are not really believe with Santa. Because here Bunny give a question about who is the someone, but Santa give the answer wit imprecisely like the answer is “ a shadow “. Then Bunny give interruption for all friends to not believed to Santa. And Bunny think if Santa lie. This interaction perfectly shows pragmatics at discussion room. It is understood that this question does really ask you to explain everything going on in your life. The implication relies on the context and situation. It is good manners to ask strangers how they are.

The Survey of Pragmatics contains nine chapters, each of roughly 10 pages: 1) Definitions and background; 2) Deixis and Reference; 3) Reference and inference; 4) Presupposition and entailment; 5)Cooperation and implicature; 6) Speech acts and events; 7)Politeness and interaction; 8) Conversation and preference structure; 9) Discourse and culture. Here I will research about speect act. Speech act so many for branch like a implicature. The part is maxims.

The term ‘speech act’ is derived from the work of the Cambridge Philosopher J. L. Austin in the series of William James lectures he delivered at Harvard in 1955. Later on, his work was published in the book entitled How to Do Things with Words (1965). Speech act theory believes in identifying utterances and turns as actual actions. This theory not only considers language used by the speaker but studies change in the state of behavior of the speaker as well as the listener at the time of communication.

In Cooperative principle, Grice (in Leech: 1993) argues that in order to implement the cooperative principles, each element must obey four conversational maxims. They are maxim of quantity, quality,relevance, and Manner. According George Yule , the assumption of cooperation is so pervasive that it can be stated as a cooperative principle of conversation and elaborated in four sub-principles, called maxims. They are as follows:

  1. Quantity : make your contribution as informative as is required ( for the current purposes of the exchange). Don’t make your contribution more informative than is require.

  2. Quality (try to make your contribution one that is true) : don’t say what you believe to be false. Dontt say that for which you lack adequate evidence.

  3. Relation : be relevant.

  4. Manner ( be perspicuous) : avoid obscurity. Avoid ambiguity. Be brief (avoid unnecessary prolixity). Be orderly.

In this research, I make a research about quality maxims in movie entitled Rise Of The Guardians. Because overall if the writer research, can’t need more time and the data. So, the writer just chose quality maxims. The object of this research is Applying Conversational Quality Maxims On Rise Of The Guardians Movie.

The media analysis is a movie adaptation of the book by William Joyce. In this animation movie, the boogeyman, Pitch (with the voice of Jude Law) wants to destroyed childhood using fear. They way he can achieve this, is to get all the children in the world to stop believing in the Guardians which are the group of protectors including Santa Claus (with the voice of Alec Baldwin), the Easter Bunny (with the voice of Hugh Jack man), the Tooth Fairy (with the voice of Isla Fisher), and Sandman who never speaks.

The infraction quality maxims can occur when a speaker try to giving information which inclined not true or lie about something to the other speaker. For example :

Santa : a lot of children are depending of you.

Jack : yeah, that really takes the pressure off.

When Jack said,” yeah, that really takes the pressure off”’. He said something, that is not true. Actually Jack very not believed or scrupled to help the child, because Jammy and his friends not believe and cant to see with Jack.

  1. Problem Identification

  2. Many people sometimes do not know about the code in pragmatics.

  3. Maxims in the movie, usually not care about the maxims, especially the people just see the expression.

  4. Scope And Limitation Of The Study

For the scope of this research describes what is the function of the use of the maxims, to make amusing the audience or whether to extend the duration of the movie and to the limitations of the study. The researchers sometimes cant distinguish between regular statements or whether it contains pragmatics.

  1. Problem Statement

  2. Find quality maxim on the Rise Of The Guardians Movie?

  3. What is the function research of quality mxims in movie the rise of guardians?

  4. Objectives of Research

Applying Conversational Quality Maxims On Rise Of The Guardians Movie.

  1. The Benefits Of The Study

  2. Theoretically

  3. Be scholarly works that could contribute to the understanding of semiotics in the film.

  4. Become a reference for other researchers to conduct research advanced research themes related to the same.

  5. Practically

  6. Add to knowledge about the meaning of the existing signs are reversed the film Across the Universe, in particular on the character Jude.

  7. Increase the sensitivity of the public to interpret a message implied in a movie.


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