An analysis-English subtitle in Alice in Wonderland movie by INDOXXI.NET translation technique in In
AN ANALYSIS TRANSLATION TECHNIQUE IN INDONESIAN-ENGLISH SUBTITLE IN ALICE IN WONDERLAND MOVIE BY INDOXXI.NET
By Ayu Putri Lestari & Luthfiyah
In this article we analyzed the translation technique in Indonesian-English subtitle in Alice in Wonderland movie, translated by INDOXXI.NET. The objectives of the research are to classify the types of translation techniques and determine the most dominant types of translation techniques in Indonesian-English subtitle in Alice in Wonderland by INDOXXI.NET. This research use descriptive methodology. An utterances or sentences in Indonesian-English subtitle in Alice in Wonderland movie are the data. Based on Lucía Molina and Amparo Hurtado Albir (2002) that there are 13 translation techniques. In Indonesian-English subtitle in Alice in Wonderland movie by INDOXXI.NET, there are 13 types of translation techniques. In this subtitle we found 11types of translation techniques, such as literal meaning(78 data),adaptation (8 data), borrowing (7 data),reduction (6 data) .And other techniques (Such as, modulation (5 data), particularization (4 data), explicitation (3 data), transposition (3 data), amplification (3 data),equivalence (2 data) and compensation (1 data).
Translation techniques, subtitle, Alice in Wonderland, INDOXXI.NET
Alice in Wonderland movie is belonging to fantasy category which published on 2010. The story has an adventure fantasy and comedy drama, that story combines between the real action and the fiction or animation. That story tells about two kingdoms which have a queen that has a family bound (an old and a young sister). Their characteristic has a different background (black and white side). In the end of this story is the antagonist (a Red Queen) killed by someone who was predicted before.
Based on Word Journal of English Language, this movie becomes popular at the beginning of 2010, because of the diction in the conversation is too easy, that makes the story acceptable in all ages. Disney is not only getting more benefits from this movie, but also they are getting more rewards. Such as, Best Art Direction, Best Costume Design and Nominated as based on Visual Effect. Every character has a specific characteristic, it knows by many aspects, such as the background, music, artistic, and the animations that make this movie more unique. So, that is why we are interesting to analyze about translation techniques in Indonesian-English subtitle in Alice in Wonderland movie. Many interesting words that are using by every character that we found in an Indonesian-English subtitle of Alice in Wonderland by INDOXXI.NET. Based on downloader movies review, firefox add-ons, INDOXXI.NET is an online service provider as defined in the digital millenium copyright act. INDOXXI.NET is one of the most popular site in Indonesia, that is why we prefer to analyze this site.
This research used a descriptive research which has a deal with an identifying the translation techniques in Indonesian-English subtitle in Alice in Wonderland movie by INDOXXI.NET. The unit of analysis in this research is an utterances or sentences based on the conversation in the characteristics. We used an English language as a source language and Indonesian language as a target language. We collected the data by downloaded the transcripts (Indonesian-English) subtitles in Alice in Wonderland movie from INDOXXI.NET. First, we watched the movie. Then, we analyzed the data by compared the source language (English language) and the target language (Indonesian language) in the transcript. The last step is writing down the translation techniques that applied in that subtitle. In analyzing the data, first step is we are classifying the data based on Molina and Albir theory of translation techniques. Then, we are analyzing the translation techniques. The last step is we are drawing conclusion by the result.
Translation Technique in Indonesian-English Subtitle in Alice in Wonderland by INDOXXI.NET
Translation is often called as mediating two different cultures. This happens just because the message the translators need to be transferred from the source language (SL) to be target language (TL) is embodying a specific culture from the SL. Thus, the translator's awareness of the existence of the two different cultures as the understanding of them will result on the high quality of the translation. (Umi Pujiyanti, 2008:1).
Based on Lucía Molina and Amparo Hurtado Albir (2002) that the translation has many techniques, such as:
Borrowing (A word taken directly from another language).
Example: Mixer = Mixer
Calque (A foreign word or phrase translated and incorporated into another language, Literal translation).
Example : Directorat General = Direktorat jenderal
Transposition (A shift of word class)
Example : Adept = Sangat terampil
Modulation (A shift in point of view).
Example : Nobody doesn’t like it = Semua orang menyukai itu
Equivalence (This accounts for the same situation using a completely different phrase).
Example : Ambiguity = Ambigu
Adaptation(A shift in cultural environment).
Example : A white as snow = Seputih kapas
Compensation (An item of information, or a stylistic effect from the ST that cannot be reproduced in the same place in the TT is introduced elsewhere in the TT).
Example : A pair of scissors = Sebuah gunting
Concentration vs. Dissolution(Concentration expresses a signified from the SL with fewer signifiers in the TL. Dissolution expresses a signified from the SL with more signifiers in the TL).
Example : Tir à l’arc (F) ⇒ Archery (E)
Amplification vs. Economy (These procedures are similar to concentration and dissolution. Amplification occurs when the TL uses more signifiers to cover syntactic or lexical gaps)
Example : Ramadhan = Bulan puasa kaum muslim
Reinforcement vs. Condensation(These are variations of amplification and economy that are characteristic of French and English).
Example : Entrée de la garde (F) ⇒ To the station (E)
Explicitation vs. Implicitation(Explicitation is to introduce information from the ST that is implicit from the context or the situation. Then,Implicitation is to allow the situation to indicate information that is explicit in the ST).
Example : His patient (E) ⇒ Son patient / Son patiente (F)
Generalization vs. Particularization(Generalization is to translate a term for a more general one, whereas, particularization is the opposite).
Example : Penthouse, mansion = tempat tinggal
Inversion(This is to move a word or a phrase to another place in a sentence or a paragraph so that it reads naturally in the target language).
Example : Pack separately […] for convenient inspection (E) ⇒ Pour faciliter la visite de la douane mettre à part […] (F)
In this article we are talking about the translation techniques in Indonesian-English subtitle in Alice in Wonderland movie by INDOXXI.NET. On this process, we analyzed some utterances or sentences in this subtitle.We are compiling from the source language (English language) into a target language (Indonesian language).
First, we are watching that movie with its subtitle. Then, we analyzed some utterances or sentences that produced by the characters in that movie. After that we analyzed them.
There are some sentences that we analyzed in that subtitle:
“Do you think I’ve gone round the bind?”
“Apa menurut ayah aku sudah gila?”
“I’m against them”
“aku tak suka memakainya”
“What if it wasagreed that “proper” was wearing a codfish on your head?”
“Bagaimana jika kita berpendapat kalau "yang tepat" menaruh ikan kod di atas kepala?”
“Hamish is going to ask for your hand”
“Hamish akan melamarmu”
“You’ll want to wash that forget”
“sebaiknya kau cuci tanganmu”
“I tower over ever everyone in Umbradge”
“aku tumbuh semakin besar akhir-akhir ini”
“Run, you great lug!”
“Mind your head”
“I out grow them”
“bajuku tidak muat lagi”
“Chess, you dog!”
“Try it on for size”
“sampai jumpa semuanya”
Why is a raven like a writing desk?”
“apa kau sudah tau kenapa gagak hitam kelihatan seperti meja tulis?”
“I hope you bear me no ill will”
“kuharap kau bisa memaafkan”
From that table we explain that :
The sentence of “Do you think I’ve gone round the bind?” translated becomes “Apa menurut ayah aku sudah gila?” In this case, INDOXXI.NET used modulation technique there.
The sentence “I’m against them” translated becomes “aku tak suka memakainya” in this part, INDOXXI.NET used an explicitation technique. As we know that in Indonesian language a word ‘against’ means something like ‘fight’ or something that shows the opposition, but the translate explains the act that shows dislike something.
The sentence “What if it was agreed that “proper” was wearing a codfish on your head?” translated becomes “Bagaimana jika kita berpendapat kalau "yang tepat" menaruh ikan kod di atas kepala?” Actually, a word ‘codfish’ describes a large fish that has a cod-liver oil. Of course, INDOXXI.NET used an adaptation technique there, but in this case a word ‘codfish’ means a cod-liver oil not a fish as an object.
A word “There” translated becomes “pakailah” It has literal meaning, something like pointing via language. A word ‘there’ in Indonesian language means pointing something or shows the location of something, but here we find the subtitler translate becomes a command sentence.
The sentence “Hamish is going to ask for your hand” translated becomes “Hamish akan melamarmu”. In this case, INDOXXI.NET used an equivalence technique there.
The sentence “Imbeciles” translated becomes “ya ampun”. However, the background culture is too important for the translator to translate the SL into the TL. That is why INDOXXI.NET prefer a word “ya ampun” than “dungu” or “dasar bodoh”. It because they consider about the ages of the viewers. This sentence is used adaptation technique.
The sentence “You’ll want to wash that forget” becomes “sebaiknya kau cuci tanganmu” it used equivalence technique. When Alice proposed by Hamish in the garden, then there is a caterpillar in the Hamish’s arm. Alice asked him to wash his hand, but he refused it.
The sentence “Run, you great lug!” becomes “lari, bodoh!”is used adaptation technique. Actually the meaning is “run, you like a thing” bcome “ Run,stupid” or “lari,bodoh”.
The sentence “Mind your head” becomes “awas kepalamu” is used transposition technique. It is same with the sentence “Suit yourself” becomes “baiklah” and
“I out grow them” becomes
The sentence “Blame it on too much upelkuchen” becomes “aku terlalu banyak memakan upelkuchen”. INDOXXI.NET used borrowing techniques, because a word ‘upelkuchen’ does not translate by them.
The sentence “Chess, you dog!” becomes “Chess, kau hebat!” INDOXXI.NET used compensation technique, because it may help the reader to understand the meaning.
The sentence “Try it on for size” becomes “coba pakai”. INDOXXI.NET used reduction technique there, because it cut a half of word.
The sentence “Fairfarren all!” becomes “sampai jumpa semuanya”. It used an adaptationtechnique.
The sentence “Why is a raven like a writing desk?” becomes “apa kau sudah tau kenapa gagak hitam kelihatan seperti meja tulis?” is used literal meaning.
The sentence “I hope you bear me no ill will” becomes “kuharap kau bisa memaafkan” INDOXXI.NET usedequivalence technique.
For more detail, we analyzed each sentences and utterances in Indo-English subtitle in Alice in Wonderland by INDOXXI.NET.
Charles, you have finally lost your senses.
Charles, kau benar-benar sudah
kehilangan akal sehatmu.
This venture is impossible.
Usaha ini sungguh tidak mungkin.
For some. Gentlemen, the only way to achieve the impossible is to believe it is possible.
Bagi sebagian orang. Tuan-tuan, satu-satunya cara untuk mewujudkan hal yang tak mungkin adalah dengan meyakini itu mungkin dilakukan.
That kind of thinking could ruin you.
Pemikiran semacam itu bisa menghancurkanmu.
I'm willing to take that chance.
Aku akan mengambil kesempatan itu.
Imagine trading posts in Rangoon, Bangkok, Jakarta
Bayangkan melakukan perdagangan di Rangoon, Bangkok, Jakarta
The nightmare again?
Mimpi buruk lagi?
I won't be long.
Aku takkan lama.
I'm falling down a dark hole, then I see strange creatures.
Aku terjatuh di lubang gelap, lalu aku melihat makhluk-makhluk aneh.
What kind of creatures?
Mahkluk seperti apa?
Well, there's a dodo bird, a rabbit in a waistcoat, asmiling cat.
Ada burung dodo, kelinci
memakai rompi, kucing yangtersenyum.
I didn't know cats could smile.
Ayah tak tahu kalau kucing bisa senyum.
And there's a blue caterpillar.
Dan ada ulat bulu berwarna biru.
I'm afraid so.
You're mad, bonkers, off your head.
Itu yang Ayah takutkan.
Kau sudah gila, sinting, kehilangan akal sehat
But I'll tell you a secret.
All the best people are.
Tapi akan Ayah ceritakan sebuah rahasia.
Semua orang-orang hebat begitu.
It's only a dream, Alice.
Nothing can harm you there.
Itu cuma mimpi, Alice.
Tak ada yang bisa menyakitimu saat bermimpi.
But if you get too frightened,you can always wake up. Like this.
Tapi jika kau terlalu takut,
kau selalu bisa bangun. Lakukan seperti ini.
Must we go?
Haruskah kita pergi?
Doubt they'll notice if we never arrive.
Aku rasa mereka takkan tahu
kalau kita tidak datang.
They will notice.
Mereka pasti tahu.
Where's your corset?
But you're not properly dressed.
Tapi kau tidak berpakaian dengan tepat.
Who's to say what is proper?
Siapa bilang itu yang tepat?
What happened to your clothes?
Ada apa dengan bajumu?
I outgrew them.
I've been growing an awful lot lately.
Bajuku tidak muat lagi.
Aku tumbuh semakin besar akhir-akhir ini.
I tower over everyone in Umbradge.
They laugh at me.
Aku paling tinggi dari semua orang
di Umbradge. Mereka menertawakanku.
So I've come to you, hoping you mightunderstand what it's like.
Jadi aku datang padamu, berharap
kau bisa mengerti keadaanku.
My dear girl,
Gadis yang malang
Anyone with a head that largeis welcome in my court.
barang siapa yang punya kepala
besar akan disambut baik di istanaku.
Use the curtains if you must,but clothe this enormous girl.
Gunakan gorden jika terpaksa,
berikan pada gadis besar ini.
I need a pig here.
Aku ingin babi dikakiku!
I love a warm pig belly for my aching feet
Aku suka perut babi yang
hangat untuk menempatkan kakiku.
Would you like one, Um?
Kau mau coba, Um?
Where are my fat boys?
You must meet them.
Dimana anak-anak gemuk itu?
Kau harus bertemu mereka.
Oh. There they are.
Aren't they adorable?
Oh. Itu mereka.
Bukankah mereka lucu?
They have the oddest way of speaking.
Speak, boys. Amuse us.
Cara mereka berbicara aneh sekali.
Bicaralah, anak-anak. Buat kami tertawa.
Contrariwise, I believe it's so.
Sebaliknya, aku yakin.
I love my fat boys. Now, get out.
Aku suka anak-anak gemuk itu.
He did pinch me.
And who is this lovely creature?
Dan siapa makhluk cantik ini?
Um, my new favorite.
Um, teman baru kesayanganku.
Well, does she have a name?
Dia punya nama?
I believe your name
has slipped the Queen's mind.
Aku yakin namamu hilang
dari ingatan Ratu.
Her name is Um, idiot.
Namanya Um, bodoh!
Any luck with the prisoner?
Kau dapat informasi dari tahanan itu?
Dia keras kepala.
You're too soft. Bring him.
Kau terlalu lembut.
We know Alice has returned to Underland.
Kami tahu Alice sudah kembali
Do you know where she is?
Kau tahu dimana dia?
I've been considering thingsthat begin with the letter 'M.'
Aku sudah memikirkan kata
yang dimulai dengan huruf "M."
We're looking for an 'A' word now.
Where is Alice?
Kami mencari huruf "A".
Who, that wee little boy?
I wouldn't know.
Siapa, bocah kecil itu?
Mana ku tahu.
What if I take off your head?
Will you know then?
Bagaimana jika ku penggal kepalamu?
Apa kau akan tahu?
What a regrettably large head you have.
Sungguh sangat disayangkan
kepala besarmu itu.
I should very much like to hat it.
Aku bisa membuatkan topi untukmu.
I used to hat the White Queen, you know
Aku dulu membuat topi untuk
Ratu Putih, asal kau tahu.
Wasn't very much to work with,poor dear.
Sebenarnya tak begitu cocok dengannya,
Her head is so small.
Kepalanya terlalu kecil
It's tiny. It's a pimple of a head.
Sangat kecil. Itu seperti jerawat dikepala.
Nay, this magnificently heroic globe.
Tidak, ini adalah bulatan yang sempurna.
What could you do?
Apa yang bisa kau lakukan?
Unbind him, Stayne.
Lepaskan ikatannya, Stayne.
How can he work if his hands are bound?
Bagaimana dia bisa bekerja
jika tangannya terikat?
Well, then,shall it be a bonnet or a boater?
Baiklah, kita buat topi bonnet
atau model perahu?
Or something for the boudoir?
Atau sesuatu untuk boudoir ini?
The trees seem sad.
Pepohonan kelihatan sedih.
Have you been speaking with them?
Sudahkah kau berbicara dengan mereka?
Yes, Your Majesty.
Sudah, Yang Mulia.
Perhaps a bit more kindly.
Barangkali harus lebih ramah.
Would you all excuse mefor a moment? Thank you.
Bisa tinggalkan aku sebentar?
What news, Bayard?
Ada berita apa, Bayard?
Alice has returned to Underland.
Alice telah kembali ke Underland.
Where is she now?
Dimana dia sekarang?
In Salazen Grum
Di Salazen Grum.
Forgive me. I allowed her
to divert from her destined path.
Maafkan aku. Aku membiarkan dia
berpaling dari takdirnya.
We have our champion.
Rest now. You've done well.
Kita dapatkan sang juara kita. Istirahatlah.
Kau sudah lakukan tugas dengan baik.
Have you seen a hat around here?
Apa kau lihat sebuah topi disekitar sini?
You must find Alice, Stayne.
Kau harus temukan Alice, Stayne.
my sister's followers
will surely rise against me.
para pengikut adikku
akan terus menentangku.
Ugly little sister.
Why do they adore her and not me?
Adik kecilku yang jelek.
Kenapa mereka memujanya dan bukan aku?
I had to do it. He would have left me.
Aku harus lakukan itu.
Dia pun meninggalkanku.
Majesty, is it not better
to be feared than loved?
Yang Mulia, bukankah lebih baik
ditakuti daripada dicintai?
Not certain anymore.
Aku tak yakin lagi.
Oh, let her have the rabble.
I don't need them.
Oh, biarkan saja dia mendapatkan
dukungan rakyat. Aku tak butuh mereka.
I have you.
Aku punya kamu.
You must let me try one on.
Kau harus biarkan aku mencobanya.
It is good to be working at my trade again.
Sungguh menyenangkan bisa
melakukan keterampilanku lagi.
It's just a pity
you have to make them for her.
Tapi sayangnya kau harus
membuat topi ini untuknya.
What is the hatter with me?
Ada apa denganku?
Have you any idea
why a raven is like a writing desk?
Apa kau tahu kenapa burung
gagak seperti meja tulis?
I'm frightened, Alice.
Aku takut, Alice.
I don't like it in here.
It's terribly crowded.
Aku tak suka berada disini.
Disini sungguh penuh sesak.
Have I gone mad?
Apa ayah pikir aku sudah gila?
I'm afraid so. You're entirely bonkers.
Kau memang sudah gila.
But I'll tell you a secret.
All the best people are.
Tapi akan ku katakan sebuah rahasia.
Semua orang-orang hebat itu gila.
That's better. You look yourself again.
Sudah lebih baik. Kau sudah kelihatan
seperti dirimu lagi.
In this case, Indonesian – English subtitle in Alice in Wonderland movie has many techniques that used by INDOXXI.NET. Also we found another borrowing technique, such as, Frabjous day, futterwacken, oraculum,underland,Griblig day, squimberryjuice,etc. Even in those subtitle we found some borrowing techniques there, mostly it used literal meaning for the technique.
It can be conclude that in Indonesian-English subtitle in Alice in Wonderland has 11 translation techniques. There are literal meaning, adaptation, borrowing, reduction.And other techniques (Such as, modulation, particularization, explicitation, transposition, amplification, equivalence and compensation). After we analyzed those subtitle, mostly it used literal meaning. We found almost 65% literal meaning for the techniques. Also, we found around 6,7% used an adaptation techniques, 5,8% used borrowing techniques, and 5% used reduction techniques. So, the 17,5% is about other techniques, such as explicitation, equivalence, modulation, amplification, particularization, transposition, compensation, and reduction techniques.
Albir, Molina (2002). Translation Techniques Revisited: A Dynamic and Functionalist Approach. Les Presses de l’Université de Montréal
Nababan (2008). Kompetensi Penerjemahan dan Dampaknya pada Kualitas Penerjemahan. Surakarta : Universitas Sebelas Maret
Pujiyanti, Umi (2008). Budaya: Unsur pembeda dalam penerjemahan (Cultures: Distinctive feature in Translation), Sukoharjo : IAIN Surakarta