• Khairunissa Luthfi (143211007)

TRANSLATION QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF INDONESIAN SLANG WORD TO ENGLISH OF STAND-UP COMEDY SUBTITLE BY RA


Abstract

The purpose of this study is to identify the translation quality assessment of translated spoken slang or dialect in subtitles. Slang is non-formal language that widely used by people in this world. This research focused in the quality and the acceptability of the products. The data of this analysis will be taken from the videos of Stand Up Comedy by Raditya Dika. In order to understand how or whether to translate the linguistic features of spoken Source Language (SL) dialect into written Target Language (TL) this study will begin with a brief examination of spoken language. This study used the theory about the quality assessment to assess the data. From the analysis, the functional equivalence: semantic errors is 14.2%, stylistic errors is 14.2%. The acceptability: grammar errors 5.7%, spelling errors 0%, and idiomaticity errors 14.2%. The readability: segmentation and spotting 11.4%, punctuation and graphics 14.2%, and reading speed and length 5.7%.

Keywords: translation theory, translation quality assessment, slang words

Introduction

Language has an important role in communication between each other. Without language, people can’t understand what people said to others. Language makes the communication of people in this world more easily. The first language in this world is English language. English becomes the standard language in many countries. English language divided into two, standard language and non-standard language.

Non-standard language usually found in spoken language. The conversation which has non-standard language can be subtitled also. The example of non-standard language is slang language. Slang language has non-formal expression. According to Chen Linhua (2006, p.260) slang is a part of language that is usually outside of conventional or standard usage and that may consist of both newly coined words and phrases and of new or extended meanings attached to established terms.

In native name, slang words or ‘bahasa gaul’, means 'language for socialization', as gaul means 'to be socialised'. This term was coined in the late 1990s. Indonesian slang language is mainly a spoken form, used in social milieus and in popular media, and to certain extent is used in publications such as teen magazines or pop culture magazines. One can deduce that Indonesian slang language is the primary language for oral communication spoken by everybody in daily life, except for formal speeches. It would be very unusual to communicate orally to people using the formal Indonesian. The slang language is an ever-evolving language, as many words quickly become outdated and obsolete because of trends.

Slang words usually can be found in daily conversation in people’s life. The language can also be found in the conversation of the movies. Movie need subtitle to make the viewer from other country understand the conversation. Gambier (1993: 276) explored his definition about subtitling as follow: “Subtitling is one of two possible methods for providing the translation of a movie dialogue, where the original dialogue soundtrack is left in place and the translation is printed along the bottom of the film”. Subtitle is done by translating the source language into target language and put the translation in the bottom of the movie.

The object of this research is English and Indonesian subtitle in Stand Up Comedy by Raditya Dika. The focus in this research is the slang words in the source language that found in the subtitle in Stand Up Comedy by Raditya Dika. The researcher uses Indonesian language as the source language and English subtitle as the target language. The researcher tries to figure out the translation quality assessment in term of acceptability that use in the subtitle movie.

The quality assessment is needed to know the quality of the translation. Juliane House (1981: 1) states that when one tries to make statements about the quality of more specifically, the nature of the relationship between a source text and target text, the relationship between features of the text and how they are perceived by human agents (author, translator, recipient), and the consequences views about these relationships have for determining the borders between a translation and the other textual operations.

Based on Newmark theory, there is eighteen types in procedures of translation. Also three qualifications assessment (The FaR model) based on Pederson (2017) there are functional equivalence, Acceptability and Readability. In this research, the researcher uses the theory FaR model to assessing the slang words subtitle in Stand Up Comedy by Raditya Dika. Stand Up has many slang words that the researcher can analyze based on theory.

Methodology

This study was a descriptive qualitative research. The purpose of this study is to find the quality of translation in slang words used in Stand Up comedy. The research in this article is based Stand Up comedy by Raditya Dika and the source of the data that used in this article is based in the slang words that found in the subtitle of Stand Up comedy.

The data has taken from the subtitle in Youtube. The data of this research are the dialogue on the subtitle of stand-up comedy by Raditya Dika. Those dialogue used by Raditya Dika in Bahasa Indonesia, and the subtitle translated to English. The secondary source of data is informant. Informant is a person who can give information related to the research (Ghony, 2015: 26). The informant in this research is respondent. The researcher selected respondent as the subject who provide the data related to the readability of the subtitling.

The researcher collect the data by using video subtitle of stand-up comedy by Raditya Dika. Cresswell (2014: 240) explains that the data which take form of photograph, art objects, videotapes, website main pages, e-mail, text messages, social media text, or any forms of sound is called qualitative audio and visual materials. Based on this approach, the researcher examine the video by write down what the speakers said on the subtitle of stand-up comedy by Raditya Dika. After that, the researcher analysis between Source Language (SL) and Target Language (TL) that is from Indonesia to English. The last is giving conclusion from this research.

Finding and Discussion

  1. General words and phrases.

This entry will list words and phrases from Indonesian slang, which are not region specific, and which are never considered as outdated.

  • Data number 1. “nanya” is informal word and it means “bertanya” in the subtitle translated “asking”

  • Data number 2. “nyokap” is informal word and it means “ibu” in the subtitle translated “mother”

  • Data number 3. “ngeliat” is informal word and it means “melihat” in the subtitle translated “look”

  • Data number 4. “gue” is informal word and it means “aku, saya” in the subtitle translated “I”

  • Data number 5. “dateng” used replacing letter “e” into “a” of the word to be “datang” in the subtitle translated “came”

  • Data number 6. “saking” is informal word and it means like “sangat or maybe terlalu” in the subtitle translated “I’ve had enough”

  • Data number 7. “diberitain” used adding-in at the end of the passive transitive verbs “di-berita-in” it means “diberitakan” in the subtitle translated “reported”

  • Data number 8. “bokap” is informal word and it means “ayah” in the subtitle translated “dad”

  • Data number 9. “lo” is informal word and it means “kamu, anda” in the subtitle translated “you”

  • Data number 10. “ngerasa” is informal word and it means “merasa” in the subtitle translated “feel”

  • Data number 11. “mabok” used replacing letter “o” into “u” of the word to be “mabuk” in the subtitle translated “drunk”

  • Data number 12. “kemaren” used replacing letter “e” into “i” of the word to be “kemarin” in the subtitle translated “yesterday”

Data number 14. “kalo” used contracting diphthong into monosyllabic letter from “kalo” into “kalau” in the subtitle translated “if”

  • Data number 15. “pake” used contracting diphthong into monosyllabic letter from “pake” into “pakai” in the subtitle translated “wore”

  • Data number 16. “siapin” used adding-in at the end of the passive transitive verbs “siap-in” it means “mempersiapkan” in the subtitle translated “preparing”

  • Data number 17. “masukin” used adding-in at the end of the passive transitive verbs “masuk-in” it means “memasukkan” in the subtitle translated “slipped”

  • Data number 18. “bantuin” used adding-in at the end of the passive transitive verbs “bantu-in” it means “membantu” in the subtitle translated “help”

  • Data number 19. “nunjuk” is informal word and it means “menunjuk” usually used to show something that someone look, based on the data in subtitle translated “the ones where they point at the sky”

  • Data number 20. “ngantri” is informal word and it means “mengantri” in the subtitle translated “queuing”

  • Data number 21. “kencingin” used adding-in at the end of the passive transitive verbs “kencing-in” it means “mengencingi” in the subtitle translated “peed”

  • Data number 22. “cemen” is informal word and it means maybe like “culun” usually used to says to a person who not be brave in doing something, in the subtitle translated “lame”

  • Data number 23. “kampungan” is informal word and usually used to says a person who doing freak something ” in the subtitle translated “tacky”

  • Data number 24. “salaman” is informal word and it means “berjabat tangan” usually it doing with someone that just meet, in the subtitle translated “shook hands”

  • Data number 25. “diacak adut” is informal word and it means “memberantakkan or merusak” in the subtitle translated “tampered”

  • Data number 26. “mainin” used adding-in at the end of the passive transitive verbs “main-in” it means “memainkan” in the subtitle translated “play”

  • Data number 27. “bacain” used adding-in at the end of the passive transitive verbs “baca-in” it means “membantu” in the subtitle translated “help”

  • Data number 29. “kayak” is informal word is informal word and it means “seperti” in the subtitle translated “like”

  • Data number 30. “gencetin” is informal word and it means “membuli” usually it doing a person to someone else, in the the subtitle translated “bullies”

  • Data number 35. “ledekin” is informal word and it means “meledek or mengejek” usually it doing a person to someone else, in he subtitle translated “mock”

  1. Swear Words:

  • Data number 13. “goblok” it means “stupid” usually used to says to a person who doing something that freak, in the subtitle translated “moron”

  • Data number 28. “kampret” it like jerk, usually used to says to a person who someone hated, in the subtitle translated “bitch”

  • Data number 31. “bangsat” it means damn in a harsh way, literally means bed bugs. In the subtitle translated “bitch”

  • Data number 32. “bacot” it means something speech from someone that not liked by someone else, in the subtitle translated “venting”

  • Data number 33. “tai” usually used to says to something that freak, in the subtitle translated “feces”

  • Data number 34. “bego” it means stupid, usually says to a person who doing something that freak, in the subtitle translated “idiot”

  1. Translation Quality Assessment

Equivalence errors consist of two kinds: semantic and stylistic. Acceptability is the quality of translation which is related to the applicable norms of target language (Pederson, 2017:210). This translation of Stand Up Comedy by Raditya Dika from 35 data in this research, the researcher founds the translation quality assessment in term equivalence errors, acceptability, and readability based on Pederson’s theory. To explain more clearly the translation techniques that use in subtitling Stand Up Comedy, the table is in below:

From the table we can conclude that most of the subtitle was not contain many functional equivalence errors, such as semantic errors and stylistic errors, and most of the subtitle classified acceptable, it can be seen that the subtitle doesn’t have grammar errors, spelling errors, and errors of idiomaticity. Also the subtitle is readable. Some examples of this functional equivalence, acceptability, and readability and the errors of them are presented as follows:

  1. Functional equivalence

  2. Line number 1

Source text: Semua orang tuh kenapa sih begitu kita pada level usia tertentu semua orang nanya gitu “kapan nikah?”

Target text: Why is it that when we reach a certain age everyone starts asking “When are you getting married?”

The example above shows the slang words of “nanya” and it is translated into “asking”. There are no equivalence errors because the translator can transfer from Indonesian language into English language well. “nanya” in English is translated into “asking”.

  1. Semantic errors

Line number 25

Source text: Gue suka banget main game, diacak adut!

Target text: I love playing games, and it got tampered with.

The example above is semantic errors. The text “diacak adut” translated into “tampered” in English language. The translator can’t translate the text well because it is Indonesian language and it is difficult for translator to translating the text. Then, translator use “tampered” words in English subtitle.

  1. Stylistic errors

Line number 32

Source text: Tiap malem sebelum tidur lo harus dengerin semua bacotannya dia.

Target text: Every night before sleeps, you must to listen to her venting.

The example above is stylistic errors. The text “bacotannya” is translated into “her venting”. The translator used the wrong words for translating the text. “venting” in Indonesian mean “lubang angina” or “luapan kemarahan”.

  1. Acceptability

  2. The acceptable sentence can found in line number 4

Source text: Sekarang random banget. Gue lagi sakit gitu “mah minta obat dong”.

Target text: Now it’s all random. I’m sick and I ask for some pills.

The translator can translated it well and the researcher can know what the text in English version. So, the subtitle translation is acceptable.

  1. Grammar errors

Line number 13

Source text: Harghh! “goblok lo!” gue potekin aja palanya tuh.

Target text: Harghh! “you moron!” I felt like ripping off the head.

The text “goblok lo” in English should be translated into “you’re moron”, not “you moron”. There is a grammatical error found in this subtitle because the translator translate the text without pay attention in the grammar.

  1. Idiomaticity errors

Line number 23

Source text: Balas dendamnya itu kampungan banget ya.

Target text: My way of getting revenge was so tacky and lame.

The word “kampungan” in subtitle is translated into “so tacky and lame”. The translator can transfer the message from the source language but the target language sound un-natural. It can be seen from text “

  1. Readability

  2. The subtitle is also readable, it can be seen from the text subtitle. The example are found in the line number 2

Source text: Nyokap gue terutama. Nyokap gue di setiap kesempatan tuh selalu ngomong. Kalo dulu tuh enak, kontekstual.

Target text: Especially my mother. My mom asks about it whenever she has the opportunity. It used to be based on context.

The sentence “Nyokap gue terutama. gue di setiap kesempatan tuh selalu ngomong. Kalo dulu tuh enak, kontekstual” translated into “Especially my mother. My asks about it whenever she has the opportunity. It used to be based on context” well. The watcher who watch the stand up video understand about the subtitle. The translator can deliver the message well.

  1. Segmentation and spotting

Line number 19

Source text: Ada yang nunjuk-nunjuk langit gitu kan.

Target text: The ones where they point at the sky.

The segmentation has some space and make the watcher unconfortable while watching the translate of the video.

  1. Punctuation and graphics

Line number 31

Source text: Gue baca postingan itu, gue mikir, bangsat nih cowok!

Target text: I read that post and thought that son of a bitch.

The source “Gue baca postingan itu, gue mikir, nih cowok!

“ translated into “

“. There is less punctuation found in the English subtitle.

  1. Reading speed and length

Line number 3

Source text: Kalo lagi ke kawinan resepsi sodara gue, dia ngeliat mempelai, dia ngeliat gue.

Target text: When we’re going to a relative’s wedding reception, for example. She’d look at the bridge and groom and then at me.

The English subtitle is too fast so the watcher can’t read the subtitle well. The subtitle “When we’re going to a relative’s wedding reception, for example. She’d at the bridge and groom and then at me.” Should be separated into two section.

CONCLUCION

Translating Indonesian slang words not directly translate from slang words themselves. Firstly, understand and let make conclusions and what the meaning of the Indonesian slang words that want to translate, then change the Indonesian slang words into a formal language first, then translate the Indonesian slang words into English. From the analysis above it can conclude that the English subtitle of Stand Up Comedy by Raditya Dika is acceptable and readable.

REFERENCES

Baker, Mona (Ed.) 1998. Routlegde Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. London: TJ International Ltd.

Bell, Roger T. 1991. Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice. England: Longman Group UK Ltd.

Budick, Sanford and Wolfgang Iser. 1996. The Translatability of Cultures. USA: Stanford University Press.

Creswell, John W. 1994. Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. USA: SAGE Publications

Larson, Mildred. 1984. Meaning-Based Translation. A Guide to Cross Language Equivalence. Lanham. University Press of America.

House, J. (1997). translation quality assessment. tubingen: narr.

Pedersen, J. (2017). the FAR Model. assessing quality in interlingual subtitling, 210-229.

#translationqualityassessment #umipujiyanti

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