• Anisa Wahyu Isnaini,Refi Geger Ruswijayanti

Translation Types Applied in the Translation of Two Frozen’s Original Soundtracks

Translation Types Applied in the Translation of Two Frozen’s Original Soundtracks

Refi Geger Ruswijayanti


Anisa Wahyu Isnaini



The focus of this paper is to find out what are translation types that applied in a subtitle. The source data of this research is Frozen Movie and the data is English and Indonesian subtitle of Frozen’s soundtracks. The writer classify the types of translation from English to Indonesian subtitle that applied by the translator and then find out what is the most dominant translation types is used. From this research, it shows that 1) there are 4 translation types that applied on Frozen’s soundtracks subtitle : 9 data or 13.43% of free translation, 11 data or16.42 % of word for word translation, 45 data or 67.16% of literal translation, 2 data or 2.99% of dynamic translation. 2) the most dominant of translation types that applied is literal translation which has highest percentage ( 67.16% or 45 data).

Key Word : Translation, Translation Types, Subtitle, Frozen.


Nowadays, film industry has made a great progress. It always has its own way to interest the audiences. Every film has its own genre, start from action movie to animation movie. The audiences also come from the various circle, it can be adult, teenager and kids. Each countries have their own movies, when the movies are played in another country which does not use the same language as the original movie, it becomes the job of the translator to translate the movie. So, it can be understood by the audiences in that country.

Translator is a person who translates from one language into another, especially as a profession. It is also can be a program that translates from one programming language into another, and the process of translating words or text from one language into another is called as translation. Translation is often called as mediating two different cultures. This happens just because the message the translators need to be transferred from the Source Language (SL) to the Target Language (TL) is embodying a specific culture from the SL. Thus, the translator’s awareness of the existence of the two different cultures as well as the understanding of them will result on the high quality of the translation (Pujiyanti, 2008:1).

In the process of translation, there are some ways to translate a movie. There are dubbing and subtitling. Dubbing is a replacement of a soundtrack from the source language to the target language. Subtitling is defined as a presentation of dialogue translation in a film in the form of titles usually at the bottom of image or shot on the screen (Hurt, Widler, 1998). Subtitle helps the audiences to understand the story of the movie, so they are not confused when they are watching it. According to a movie translation, there must be some translation types that can be found in the subtitle of a movie.

In Indonesia, there are many foreign movies that use an Indonesian subtitle so it can be understood by the Indonesian audiences. One of the movies is “Frozen”.it is an American animation movie, released in 2013 and directed by Chris Buck and Jennifer Lee. The reason why the researcher analyzes the translation types applied in subtitle of “Frozen” song because this movie has won 2 Oscars, it is also won another 83 wins and got 51 of nominations. The other reason we choose to analyze the translation types that applied in this movie’s subtitle, especially on the soundtracks, is because the songs are so catchy.

The two original soundtracks from Frozen movie chosen by the researchers are Let It Go and Do You Wanna Build a Snowman? We choose Let It Go because this song was the first song from a Disney animated musical that hit the pop top 10 since Vanessa Williams took "Colors of the Wind" from Pocahontas to #4 in 1995. Another reason is because this song won the Academy Award for Best Original Song and the Grammy Award for Best Song Written for Visual Media. It also got a Golden Globe nomination for Best Original Song. On YouTube, this song which is uploaded by Disney has reached almost 180m views. The second song is Do You Wanna Build a Snowman?, the researchers choose this song because this song is so catchy and easy to listen. This song also becomes a hit and was sold at 1.600.000 downloads according to Nielsen SoundScand.


The research is a descriptive research which aimed at identifying the translation types applied in subtitle of “Frozen” song. The unit of analysis of this research is songs with title “Let it Go” and “Do You Wanna Built a Snowman” that sung by any characters in the “Frozen” movie. The Source Language is English, and the Target Language is Indonesian as the data to be analyzed. The data was collected by using documentation in the form of “Frozen” movie. In the first step the researcher watched the movie. After that downloaded the English and Indonesian subtitle from the internet. The last step is writing down all translation types that applied in the full song subtitle. In analyzing the data, the researcher in the first step is classifying and categorizing the types of translation according to Nababan that is proposed ten types of translation. After that analyzing the types of translation. The last step is drawing conclusions according to the result.


According to Nababan (2008), the classification of translation has several types of translation based on the way the translation is conducted. They are:

  1. Word-for-word translation

Basically, it is the type of translation which only concern the level of words. In this type, translator finds the equivalence of the word in the target language. The examples are:

  • She can speaks French. (Dia dapat berbicara Bahasa Perancis)

  • I like reading. (Saya suka membaca)

  1. Free translation

Free translation does not always deal with the equivalence of words or sentence. Rather, it deals with the equivalence in the level of paragraph or discourse, but it is not rare that any translator applies this type of translation in the level of words or sentence, such as in translating idiomatic expression or proverb. The examples are:

  • To play truant. (membolos)

  • To kick something around. (membahas)

  • Killing two birds with one stone. (menyelam sambil minum air)

  1. Literal translation

Literal translation is somewhere between word-for-word translation and free translation. To use this type, translator firstly translate the source language in word-for-word translation, and then he freely adjust the word order in the target language. This type of translation is conducted in the case there are differences in the sentence structure between the source language and target language. The examples are:

  • My dog is chasing your neighbor’s cat. (Anjing saya sedang mengejar kucing tetangga anda)

  1. Dynamic translation

It is also called normal translation, the message of the source language is transferred into common expression used in target language. This type of translation really pays attention to the particularity of the source language. The examples are:

  • The author has organized this book since 1995 (Penulis mengorganisasi buku ini sejak 1995) “Menyusun” is the common translation of the word “to organize”.

  1. Pragmatic translation

It refers to the transfer of message by prioritizing the accuracy in delivering the information contained in the target language to the target language. Language esthetics of the source language is not important here. The examples are:

  • White Cross Baby Powder is soft and smoothing. It absorbs moisture and keeps baby cool and comfortable. It contains Chlorhexidine 0,038%, and antiseptic widely used in hospitals and clinics.

(White Cross Baby Powder)

  1. Esthetic-poetic translation

It is the opposite of pragmatic translation. In this type of translation, translator not only transferring the accurate information, but also disclosing the impression, emotion, and feeling by maintaining the esthetic of the source language. It is also called literary translation.

  1. Ethnographic translation

In this type of translation, the translator explains the social context of the source language. In case there is no equivalence of some terms contained in the source language, those terms are kept in their way.

  1. Linguistic translation

Linguistic translation is defined as translation that contains some implicit linguistic information in the source language that is made explicit in the target language. It is usually used especially to overcome such problems as ambiguity in the source language.

  1. Communicative translation

Communicative translation, basically, concerns with the transfer of message. What distinguishes it from other types of translation is that it also deals with the effect resulted from the translation towards the readers or hearers. It requires form, meaning, and function of the translation.

  1. Semantic translation

It is almost similar to communicative translation, but they are actually different in the emphasizing. Semantic translation focuses on the word equivalence by maintaining the cultural aspect of the source language. This type of translation tries to transfer the contextual meaning of the source language as close as possible with the syntactic and semantic structure of the target language.

In the real process of translation, it is almost impossible for any translator to translate the text by applying word-for-word translation, since there is no language that has exactly similar system. Supposed that word-for-word translation is employed, the result may be unnatural and/or inaccurate. The translator applied some types of translation in translating the subtitle of Original Soundtrack of Frozen movie.

Bellows are the table of the analysis of translation type in the first song titled Let It Go,

Source language

Target language

Type of translation

Let it go! (title)

The snow glows white on the mountain tonight

Salju berpendar putih di puncak gunung


Not a footprint to be seen

tanpa jejak yang terlihat

A kingdom of isolation

Kerajaan yang terasing

And it looks like I'm the queen.

dan sepertinya akulah ratunya.

The wind is howling like this swirling storm inside

Angin melolong seakan ada badai berkecamuk di dalamnya.

Couldn't keep it in, heaven knows I tried

Aku tak tahan lagi, hanya langit yang tahu


Don't let them in, don't let them see

Jangan biarkan mereka masuk dan melihat.


Be the good girl you always have to be

Jadilah gadis baik seperti yang semestinya.


Conceal, don't feel, don't let them know

Samarkan, jangan rasakan. Jangan sampai mereka tahu.

Word for word

Well, now they know!

Dan kini mereka tahu.


Let it go! Let it go!

Lepaskanlah. Lepaskanlah


Can't hold it back anymore

Aku tak kuasa lagi menahannya


Let it go! Let it go!

Lepaskanlah. Lepaskanlah


Turn away and slam the door!

Berbalik dan banting pintu itu.


I don't care! What they're going to say!

Aku tak peduli pada apa yang akan mereka katakan

Word for word

Let the storm rage on

Biarkan badai berkecamuk.


The cold never bothered me anyway!

Dingin sama sekali tak mengusikku.


It's funny how some distance makes everything seem small

Lucu rasanya bagaimana jarak membuat sesuatu tampak begitu kecil.


And the fears that once controlled me

Dan ketakutan yang dulu mengendalikanku…


Can't get to me at all!

… tak lagi bisa mengendalikanku.


It's time to see what I can do

Inilah saatnya melihat kemampuanku


To test the limits and break through

Mengetahui batasku dan menerobos


No right, no wrong, no rules for me

Tak ada benar dan salah, tak ada aturan bagiku


I’m free!

Aku bebas!

Word for word

Let it go! Let it go!

Lepaskanlah. Lepaskanlah


I am one with the wind and sky

Aku menyatu dengan angin dan langit


Let it go! Let it go!

Lepaskanlah. Lepaskanlah


You’ll never see me cry!

Kau tak akan pernah melihatku menangis

Word for word

Here I stand

Di sinilah aku berdiri

Word for word

And here I’ll stay

Dan disinilah aku tinggal


Let the storm rage on!

Biarkan badai berkecampuk


My power flurries through the air into the ground

Kekuatanku menderu di udara sampai ke tanah


My soul is spiraling in frozen fractals all around

Jiwaku meliuk dalam serpihan salju yang melingkupiku.


And one thought crystallizes like an icy blast

Dan satu pemikiran mengkristal bagai ledakan es

Word for word

I’m never going back, the past is in the past!

Aku tak akan pernah kembali, masa lalu telah berlalu!


Let it go! Let it go!

Lepaskanlah. Lepaskanlah


And I'll rise like the break of dawn

Dan aku akan bangkit seperti terbitnya fajar.


Let it go! Let it go!

Lepaskanlah. Lepaskanlah


The perfect girl is gone!

Gadis sempurna itu telah pergi


Here I stand in the light of day

Di sini aku berdiri dalam cahaya siang

Word for word

Let the storm rage on!

Biarlah badai berkecambuk!


The cold never bothered me anyway!

Dingin sama sekali tak mengusikku

Literal Translation

Here is the analysis of the second song titled Do you wanna built a snowman?

Source language

Target language

Type of translation

Do you wanna build a snowman? (title)

Kau mau membuat manusia salju?

Do you wanna build a snowman?

Kau mau membuat manusia salju?

Come on, let's go and play.

Ayo kita bermain.

I never see you anymore.

Aku tak lagi pernah melihatmu.

Come out the door

It's like you've gone away

Seolah-olah kau telah pergi jauh.

Word for word

We used to be best buddies And now we're not

Dulu kita sahabat,..dan kini tidak lagi.

I wish you would tell me why

Kuharap kau mau mengatakan alasannya.

Do you wanna build a snowman?

Kau mau membuat manusia salju?

It doesn’t have to be a snowman

Tak harus manusia salju.

Okay, bye

Baiklah, daah


Do you wanna build a snowman?

Kau mau membuat manusia salju?

Or ride our bike around the halls?

Atau bersepeda di sepanjang lorong?

I think some company is overdue

Kurasa semuanya sudah terlambat


I've started talking to the pictures on the walls

..aku mulai bicara pada lukisan di dinding

Word for word

It gets a little lonely all these empty rooms

Semua ruangan kosong ini terasa sepi …

Just watching the hours tick by

..hanya dengan melihat jam berdetak

Please I know you are in there

Kumohon. Aku tahu kau disana.

Word for word

People are asking where you've been

Orang-orang menanyakan keberadaanmu.

Word for word

They say "Have courage" And I'm trying to

Mereka bilang, "beranilah", dan aku sedang berusaha.

I'm right out here for you, Just let me in

Aku ada di sini. Biarkanlah aku masuk.

We only have each other It's just you and me

Kini hanya tinggal kau dan aku.

What are we gonna do?

Apa yang harus kita lakukan?

Do you wanna build a snowman?

Kau mau membuat manusia salju?

Translation types used by the translator in translating original soundtrack of Frozen movie


Translation Type

Number of Data


Let it go

Do you wanna build a snowman?


Word-for-word translation





Free translation





Literal translation





Dynamic translation









Here are some conclusions that can be derived from the discussion.

  1. There are some types of translations and in translating the Original Soundtrack of Frozen movie, it can be seen that there are several types of translations used by translator, namely word-for-word translation that concerns only the level of words. In this type the translator finds the equivalence of the word in the target language; free translation that usually applied in translating text in the level of paragraph or discourse; literal translation that is a combination between word-for-word translation and free translation and this type of translation is suitable for translating the source text which has different structure with those had by the target text; dynamic translation, a type of translation that used common expression to transferred to target language.

  2. The translator mostly used literal translation type with percentage 67.16% or 45 data


Fajria, A. (2015). Translation Types and Strategies Applied by Sari Kusuma in Translating Alexander McCall Smith’s The Girl Who Married a Lion into Gadis yang Menikahi Seekor Singa. Ahmad Dahlan Journal of English Studies, 2(2), 49-57.

Pujiyanti, U. (2008). Budaya: Unsur Pembeda Dalam Penerjemahan (Cultures: Distinctive Feature In Translation).

Borell, J. (2000). Subtitling or dubbing? An investigation of the effects from reading subtitles on understanding audiovisual material. LUCS Cognitive science 61-80p

Matkivska, N. (2014). Audiovisual Translation: Conception, Types, Characters’ Speech and Translation Strategies Applied. Studies about languages, (25).

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2294629/combined, diakses pada tangga 15 November 2017 pukul 07:30

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2294629/awards, diakses pada tanggal 15 November 2017 pukul 07:45

https://www.thoughtco.com/review-idina-menzel-let-it-go-3247151, diakses pada tanggal 15 November 2017 pukul 09:09


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